you probably are aware, bagels originated in Vienna over
300 years ago. They are said to have been very crusty
and chewy back then, with a distinctive flavor and color.
Today's bagel, on the other hand , is quickly evolving
into a soft roll with a hole in it. Why? Customer demand,
easier make-up, longer shelf life, use as a sandwich
instead of being eaten by itself, in short, the many
criteria pushing and pulling the original bagel formula
have caused the industry to change the finished product
to suit as many demands as possible.
to the A.I.B., over five billion bagels were sold in
this country in 1994. And based on a survey by Information
Resources Inc., while bread, rolls, buns, and English
Muffins all had 1994 sales dollar increases of 2 - 3.7%,
fresh bagels rose 62.7% and frozen bagels rose 16.2%.
These dollar sales increases undoubtedly are being followed
by poundage increases also, as I understand the 1995
bagel is being scaled at 6 - 7 ounces (verses the average
3 ounce size) in order to comply with consumer demands.
bagel is perfectly positioned for today's nutritional
demands for a low-fat, low cholesterol, high-carbohydrate,
among us has tasted what I refer to as an "original
bagel", perhaps better know as a "cement doughnut" or "Brooklyn
Jawbreaker"? Some of you no doubt remember the dark
brown chewy crust and dense crumb, and in particular,
the very characteristic flavor. What contributed the
most to that characteristic flavor? Malt, of course!
The only "original bagel" I am aware of still
being made today can be found in the New York City area
- and they do use malt - just as their ancestors did.
|Malt Extract - Saccharide Profile
Malts are slightly more than half as sweet as sucrose.
The saccharide profile of Malt Extract, for example is
1-2% fructose, 7-10% glucose, 1-3% sucrose, 39-42% maltose,
10-15% maltotriose and 25-30% higher saccharides.
perceived sweetness basically is attributed to the mono
and disaccharides fructose, glucose and sucrose, you
can see why the overall sweetness of malt extract is
lower than that of sucrose. With sucrose arbitrarily
rated at 100 in sweetness value or scale, malt extract
is about 55. Malt syrups, those with cereal adjunct,
are rated at about 65. Keep these sweetness values in
mind if the application you propose needs sweetness and
you want to use a type of malt.
give you an idea of Malt's wide application range, it
can be found in the ingredient clauses of breakfast cereals,
infant foods, saltine crackers, variety and party breads,
crispy or hard rolls, soy milk, pet foods, pharmaceuticals,
granola cereals and bars, rice cakes, pretzels, beverages,
ice creams, cookies, icings, fillings and, of course,
bagels. In addition, Malt also enhances chocolate and
cocoa items by rounding out the bitter notes, resulting
in a smoother, more mellow, chocolate flavor.
is Malt Made?
basic process used to produce malt will be described
in general terms.
basic malting process consists of three steps: steeping;
germination; and drying.
raw barley is cleaned and graded to size, then put into
cylindrical steep tanks with conical bottoms. Water is
added and the barley allowed to absorb moisture to a
45-45% water content. The barley/water mixture in the
steep tanks is agitated and aerated. When the optimum
absorption has been achieved, the steeped grain is transferred
to germinating beds.
variations in bed size exist in the malting industry
but generally, as long as proper temperature and oxygenation
conditions are available and maintained, they all seem
to be satisfactory. Germination time varies from four
to seven days, depending on the type barley and germination
germinated "malt", or "green malt" at
this stage, is fed into kilns and dried rapidly to about
6-12% moisture. This stops the germination, but leaves
the activated enzymes intact. These enzymes, basically
alpha and beta amylases, with some proteases, also are
referred to as the diastase system, thus, the term "diastatic" for
describing enzyme-active malt.
stages of processing the dried malted grain into liquid
extracts or syrups involve crushing, "mashing" with
water in mash tuns, then to lauter tuns and finally to
the evaporators. During mashing, some of the barley starch
is hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. Also, by "mashing
in" other cereal adjuncts, usually corn grits, at
this stage, many other syrup variations are possible.
The prepared mash goes to the lauter tuns where starch
hydrolysis is continued and completed. The liquid portion
of the lauter stage, or wort, is then drawn off to the
evaporators. The residue from the lauter tuns, basically
hulls, is usually sold as a high protein animal feed.
on the type of malt desired, light or dark, diastatic
or non diastatic, the evaporation conditions are adjusted
accordingly. the final liquid malt from the evaporators
is then packed in pails, drums, totes, trucks or railcars.
Malt Extract profiles are shown here. The liquid Malt
Extracts are evaporated to a uniform solids level of
79-82% and differ only in color and the presence or absence
of diastatic activity. While these depict standard products,
keep in mind that many different extracts can be produced.
These could differ in any category - the solids could
be higher or lower, although less than 70% solids is
not recommended due to malt's ready fermentability when
diluted. On the other hand, if extracts are evaporated
to more than 82% solids, the viscosity is increased exponentially
- for example, at 84% solids, you can almost walk on
the extracts! Of course, these higher solids, extracts
have to be kept very warm in order to handle them and
are produced only for special applications.
Sugars as Maltose (%)
sugars (sucrose is not a reducing sugar) can vary with
the type barley used initially, as can the protein. these
sugars are important in helping produce the brown crust
during baked due to the Maillard reaction. pH is fairly
uniform although more acidic or more basic forms are
is very adjustable with temperature as is the enzyme
activity. In fact, to produce an enzymatic, or diastatic
extract, the evaporation temperatures obviously have
to be maintained lower than the kill temperatures of
the diastatic system. Conversely, the temperature is
raised for the non diastatic types to kill the enzymes
and raised further to produce the darker colored forms
Dry malt Extract shown is the spray-dried form of the
liquid non diastatic extracts. It too, can be varied
depending on the desired levels of its various physical
characteristics. While Dry Malt Extracts are easier to
handle than the liquids, they are more expensive than
the liquids and are hygroscopic as well. However, when
used in combination with other dry ingredients such as
in mixes, the dry malts work fine. This is due to their
dispersion and consequent reduced tendency to attract
the similarities of these malt Syrups to the Malt Extracts.
Solids are still 79-82%, pH is the same range and colors
are very similar also. The differences occur in the reducing
sugars and protein. The reducing sugars are higher due
to the corn adjunct and the protein is lower because
of corn's lack of protein. By the way, these profiles
depict a malt to corn ratio of about 65:35. Many other
ratios are possible, from 10:90 to 90:10, depending on
the user's desired applications and physical characteristics.
While these products are made using he natural diastatic
system, there are products on the market achieving similar
characteristics and profiles which use added fungal enzymes,
not the natural diastatic system, and are physical blends
of malt extracts and corn syrups. If you recall, the
process described earlier used malted barley and corn
grits in the mash stage of production, resulting in what
are considered natural products.
non diastatic malt syrups are the spray dried forms of
their liquid counterparts. While only two standard items
are shown, other variations of color and flavor are possible,
from lighter to darker and from mild malt flavor to a
pronounced malt flavor.
Diastatic Malt, a dry blend of malted barley flour, wheat
flour and dextrose, as compared to the previous dry non
diastatic malts, shows lower reducing sugars, higher
protein and a lighter color. It should be stressed here,
however, that dry diastatic malt contributes very little
in terms of flavor or color versus use of liquid diastatic
malt. If liquid diastatic malt were to be dried, the
enzymes, or diastatic system, would be rendered inactive
due to the heat that must be used in the drying process.
Therefore, the only way to achieve a dry diastatic malt
is by dry blending the malted barley flour, which is
enzymatically active in the range of 200º Lintner,
with the standardizing ingredients wheat flour and dextrose.
(While it is a "malt", malted barley flour
does not have a malt flavor nor does it contribute much
to color. It basically is just a flour with enzymatic
activity.) The blending ratios used will vary depending
on the beginning activity of the malted barley flour
versus the desired finished product Lintner values of
either 20º L. or 60º L. Basically then, by
using dry diastatic malt, the only beneficial characteristic
available is that of enzymatic activity (not color, not
flavor, not crust characteristics). Conversely, of course,
by using diastatic malt, the beneficial malt characteristics
are available to the user.
general interest perhaps, particularly to the nutritionists,
is the next listing of the compound found so far in malt
extract. This is a compilation of many test results from
many different extracts since the barleys used do differ
somewhat from variety to variety and from region to region
- even field to field! Of course, most of the compounds
listed are present in only very small amounts with the
exceptions of maltose and higher saccharides and some
of the minerals.
in mind that malt contributes maltose (sweetness), mineral
salts, soluble proteins, dough conditioning enzymes,
flavor, color, and nutritive materials which promote
vigorous yeast activity, accelerate dough conditioning,
and adds flavor and aroma to the finished products. Diastatic
malts, either liquid or dry, supplement the amylase in
the wheat flour to provide sugar for fermentation and
improve dough handling by helping modify, or relax, the
gluten in the wheat flour. non diastatic malt, also liquid
or dry, basically add flavor and color, as well as sweetness.
the type malt to use should be the one which optimizes
the effects of the other ingredients reduces processing
requirements, balances the flavor level and results in
a richer, more saleable finished product.
Can Malt Improve Your Bagel?
the preceding may have confused you somewhat when it
comes down to the question, "which malt should I
use?" or, "should I use malt?", let me
assure you that a type of malt exists for use with any
given type bagel and that malt does improve your overall
my perspective, the types of sweeteners used in bagels
across the country range from High Fructose Corn Syrup
to sucrose to brown sugar to molasses to diastatic liquid
malt syrup to non diastatic liquid and dry malt syrup.
There are combinations of sweeteners used as well. Sound
even more confusing? Let's"unconfuse" it by
briefly reviewing the characteristics of these sweeteners
I just mentioned.
sucrose first, or sugar, if you prefer, it is is about
the sweetest of the sweeteners just mentioned. It usually
is used in the dry, granular form and at usage levels
of 2% to 6% based on flour. HFCS (the 42 type) is as
sweet, or a little sweeter, than sucrose but is used
in the liquid form. Since this grade of HFCS is about
76% solids, the moisture difference between it and dry
sucrose should be adjusted by appropriately modifying
the amount of formula water. Both sucrose and HFCS contribute
to the crust color of bagels and, of course, add sweetness
and provide food for the yeast during dough fermentation.
Brown sugar, in addition to the attributes of sucrose,
adds flavor and color to bagels. Since brown sugar is
a mixture of sucrose and molasses, some bagel producers
merely add the two components separately.
assuming you want to produce a bagel with eye appeal,
good taste and a medium to soft crumb, the sweetener
having the ability to impart all these characteristics
is - brown sugar - with the exception of malt. malt versus
brown sugar in bagels, at equal solids levels, produces
bagels with a richer crust color than brown sugar, with
more of a pleasing, cereal-like flavor, and with a softer
crumb. the type malt used is a 20ºL liquid malt
syrup, shown here. It is a dark brown liquid, (not available
in the dry form as the enzymes would be destroyed by
the heat used in drying) about 79 to 82% solids, has
a high reducing sugar content for good yeast activity,
and has a fairly neutral pH, making it compatible and
synergistic with the flavors of the other ingredients
present in the bagel formula.
at room temperature is such that the Malt Syrup pours
easily regardless of the container. It, as well as all
malts, is water-soluble and incorporates rapidly into
microbiological profile indicated it is a very "clean" product,
with a maximum of 5,000 Total Plate Count and less than
20 Yeast and Mold per gram. It is sterile when packed
and should keep for up to at least six months in the
original, unopened container.
next illustration shows the nutritional profile of Liquid
Malt on a 100 gram basis. It is basically a carbohydrate
comprised mostly of complex carbohydrates rather than
the "sugar" carbohydrates. In other words,
and as shown before, the amount of mono and disaccharides
or "sugar carbohydrates, is lower than that of the
higher saccharides. Of particular note are the absence
of fat and cholesterol. therefore, if you are interested
n making no-fat and no-cholesterol claims, Liquid Malt
can assist you. The vitamins and minerals present can
assist you also in making nutritional claims. It is realized
that the amount of Liquid Malt present in your products
is fairly small, but these "goodies" are present
nonetheless and will still add to your overall product's
required nutritional label panel.
|Nutrient Content of Liquid Malt Syrup |
||2.7 mb NE
|Total Dietary Fiber
Malt Syrup is a combination of malt and corn grits whose
formula was developed after many field trials under different
conditions and using a variety of finished product requirements.
Of course, while Liquid Malt provides the optimum characteristics
of color, flavor and crisp crust to most bagel formulas,
there are other variations of bagels which require different
malts to achieve their desired characteristics. As long
as these variations are within the realm of barley's
ability to produce a malt meeting the required differences,
a malt can be specially produced. For example, a wide
range of brown colors is available, from light tan to
almost black. In terms of transmittance, light malts
can be produced up to 95T and dark malts actually down
to zero T. Transmittance, by the way, is the scale used
to read color in the laboratory using a dilute sample
of malt. Also, flavor intensity can be modified, if desired,
by adjusting or changing the initial barley used, and/or
the germination time and temperatures used throughout
the process. The ratio of malt to corn also plays a big
part in determining flavor - the higher the malt percentage,
the more malt flavor.
typical Bagel formula, shown here, uses 4.5% Liquid Malt,
based on flour.. The finished products made from this
formula exhibit good rich crust color, good keeping quality,
and have good flavor as well.
|Typical Bagel Formula
|High Gluten Flour
|Liquid Maple Syrup
variation is this Deli Bagel Formula. Note a total of
5% sweetener is specified, but two sweeteners are indicated,
Malt Syrup and Liquid Brown Sugar. This double whammy
ensures good flavor, color, sweetness an keeping quality.
bake temperature does play a major part in determining
crust color and crispness. Since malt readily caramelizes
with temperature, the amount and type of malt present
can greatly effect the finished crust color. Oftentimes,
bagels can achieve the desired crust color faster with
malt, rather than with other sweeteners, thus reducing
both bake time and bake costs. While the lye bath gelatinizes
the surface starch, which also caramelizes in the oven,
it has been found that malt in the dough does increase
the degree of crust caramelization. In fact, and this
is a tip, about 1/4 ounce malt per gallon of water in
the lye bath accelerates crust color development dramatically.
Also, the crust color itself, instead of being somewhat
dull, is shinier and richer looking due to the malt.
Malt is available nationwide from Malt Products Corporation
through strategically located public warehouses. It is
packaged n five gallon pails, 55 gallon drums, totes
and in bulk. The dry forms of Malt are available in 50
pound bags. The tote bin contains the equivalent of five
drums in the space of four drums as it is the size of
a standard pallet. It weighs about 3,500 pounds gross
weight and is handled easily by most fork-lifts. It is
one unit with a metal pallet, not wood, being part of
the basic cage and jug. It is also returnable, eliminating
the problem of drum disposal.
is hoped this discussion of the general description of
malts, their processing, applications, and special use
in bagels, will be of use to each of you in the bagel
industry. Various types of malts, especially Liquid Malt,
have been described and suggestions made as to their
application and functional possibilities.
malt is a very important intermediate ingredient in that
it provides flavor, color and essential crust characteristics
to bagels. Sweetness and nutritive values are also contributed
by Liquid Malt. Your current no-sugar added, no fat and
no cholesterol claim is not compromised by use of all-natural
else can the consumer find a product exhibiting the nutritional
attributes and well as the overall eating enjoyment offered
by bagels? There aren't very many such products to be
found. Good luck in your individual endeavors to make
better bagels! I hope my remarks have been of interest
and will prove useful to those endeavors.